Human Zoos Existed, And There Are Pictures To Prove It

Zoos induce rather mixed feelings; of course, you get to see your favourite animals up close, but then again, they are in captivity, and that’s not something great. All of that aside though, zoos are, in general, enjoyable places. Zoos that contain animals, that is.

Zoos induce rather mixed feelings; of course, you get to see your favourite animals up close, but then again, they are in captivity, and that’s not something great. All of that aside though, zoos are, in general, enjoyable places. Zoos that contain animals, that is.

But isn’t that the only kind of zoo there is? Well, we’re sorry to disappoint you; until the very recent future, another kind of zoo existed – human zoos. That’s right – human beings in captivity, and exhibited – funnily, to other human beings who paid to see them.

Believe us? No? Maybe you will after you see these pictures.

 

1. These Selk’Nam natives were exhibited in human zoos while being taken to Europe.

Selk'nam natives, 1889
Image source: www.4sociales.cl
Group of Selk'nam natives
Image source: www.4sociales.cl

Carl Hagenbeck is often credited as being the man who made the zoo what it is today, creating enclosures without bars, and closer to the animal’s natural habitat. However, a lesser known fact is that he was also the first person to exhibit humans and create a “human zoo”; in 1889, he captured – with the permission of the Chilean government – 11 people of the Selk’Nam tribe, who were enclosed behind bars and exhibited across Europe. Several related, “purely natural” tribes were also soon subjected to the same fate.(source)

 

2. This African girl was exhibited in a human zoo in Brussels, Belgium, in 1958.

African girl in human zoo
Image source: imgur

Africans and Native Americans were often kept in zoos as exhibits – a practice that ran well into the late 1950s. In Europe, this was evident even as recently as the early 2000s. In Germany, Africans were brought in as exhibits for zoos and carnivals throughout the 20th century – something that was called a “People’s Show”. The Cincinnati Zoo kept 100 Native Americans in a village setting for approximately three months. This practice continued for several years, and across several places, causing widespread fury and outrage.(source)

3. Ota Benga, a Congolese pygmy was displayed at the Bronx Zoo in New York City in 1906, and was forced to carry around orangutans and other apes while he was exhibited alongside them.

 

Ota Benga

Image source: www.npr.org

“Age, 23 years. Height, 4 feet 11 inches. Weight, 103 pounds. Brought from the Kasai River, Congo Free State, South Central Africa, by Dr. Samuel P. Verner. Exhibited each afternoon during September.”

Thus read the sign outside the enclosure in which Ota Benga- a Congolese pygmy – was exhibited at the Monkey House in the Bronx Zoo in New York in 1906, where he entertained onlookers by shooting at targets with a bow and arrow and making amusing faces. He also did “tricks” with orangutans and other apes to entertain the large number of people who were drawn to this unusual, yet highly interesting specimen in the zoo. This incident, however, drew criticism from several corners, leading to the “exhibit” being withdrawn.(source)

 

4. Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale – the human zoo of Paris.

In a grand, albeit twisted display of power, the French, in a bid to promote their colonizing power, built six villages in the Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale, each representative of the Madagascar, Indochine, Sudan, Congo, Tunisia and Morocco – French colonies at the time, for an exhibition which lasted from May through October 1907.

 

French colonial Exposition
Image source:  messynessychic.com

Built to showcase France’s colonial power, this attracted over a million people in the six months that the “exhibition” lasted.

 

Human zoo Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale
Image source: messynessychic.com

The villages were made to reflect life in the colonies, from the architecture to the agricultural practices.

Human zoo Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale
Image source: messynessychic.com

Above is the picture of a Congolese “factory” built in Marseille, in an attempt to imitate life. To this extent, several Congolese people were brought to the site to “work” in this factory.

 

Jardin d’Agronomie Tropicale human zoo
Image source: messynessychic.com

What attracted over a million people then, now lies abandoned and ignored – a spot of history that France would only too hastily forget. In 2006, despite the public being granted access to the gardens, few actually visited it.(source)

 

5. Sarah Baartman – the girl who embodied the inhumanity of the human zoos, here, being “exhibited”.

 

Saartjie
Image source: messynessychic.com

In 1810, 20-year-old Sarah “Saartjie” Baartman was recruited by an exotic animal-dealer to be “exhibited”. With the promise and expectation of wealth and fame, Sarah travelled to London with him, where what followed was far from promised; having a genetic condition that led to Sarah possessing protruding buttocks and an elongated labia, she was the topic of much speculation and attraction. She was dressed in tight-fitting clothes and exhibited at sideshow attractions; she was exhibited as being a “novelty” – something “exotic”. She died, steeped in poverty, only to have her skeleton, brain, and sexual organs displayed in the Museum of Mankind in Paris till 1974. In 2002, following then-President Nelson Mandela’s request, her remains were repatriated.(source)

 

6. A “Negro Village” in Germany displaying a mother and her child.  

Mother with her child
Image source

This exhibit was among the most popular there, and was even visited by Otto von Bismarck.

 

Another photo from the “Negro Village”:

Negro Village
Image source

7. Several indigenous people and African and Asian races were often caged and displayed in a makeshift “natural habitat”.

 

Africans, Asians, and Indigenous people at human zoo
Image source

These human displays were incredibly popular and were shown at world fairs across the world, from Paris to New York.

 

8. The Parisian World Fair, 1931.

Paris World Fair
Image source

The 1931 exhibition in Paris was so successful that 34 million people attended it in six months; a smaller counter-exhibition – “The Truth on the Colonies”, organized by the Communist Party, attracted very few visitors.(source)

 

9. People visiting zoos during several world exhibitions were entertained by groups of pygmies who were forced to dance.

 

Pygmies dance
Image source

10. In 1881, five Indians of the Kawesqar tribe (Tierra del Fuego, Chili) were kidnapped to be transported to Europe to be displayed.

 

Kawesqar tribe
Image source

All of them died within a year.

11. Here, people of indigenous races are shown participating in archery at the “Savage Olympics Exhibition”  organised in 1904 in St Louis by the whites.

 

Savage Olympics Exhibition
Image source: dailymail.co.uk

Organised by the white Americans, The Savages’ Olympics consisted of Native Americans and other tribesmen from several corners of the world, such as Africa, South America, The Middle East, and Japan. The idea for an Olympics featuring these “savages” sprung from games director James Edward Sullen’s suggestion to implement this in order to prove that the “savages” were less athletic in comparison to “civilised”, white Americans.(source)

1940s to the present
The concept of the human zoo has not completely disappeared. Oddly the first world leader to officially and systematically ban human zoo’s were the Nazis under Adolf Hitlers orders. Most assume this was a political move to create emotional sway among the public. Whether or not it was to increase their popularity the National Socialists Workers party of Germany was the first political organization to actively remove human zoos from their public and private enterprises. The Nazis also fined, imprisoned and even tortured some of the main proponents and perpetrators of human zoos. A Congolese village was displayed at the Brussels 1958 World’s Fair.[19] In April 1994, an example of an Ivory Coast village was presented as part of an African safari in Port-Saint-Père, near Nantes, in France, later called Planète Sauvage.[20]
An African village, intended as a craft and cultural festival, was held in Augsburg Zoo in Germany in July 2005, and was subject to widespread criticism.[21] In August 2005, London Zoo displayed four human volunteers wearing fig leaves (and bathing suits) for four days.[22] In 2007, Adelaide Zoo ran a Human Zoo exhibition which consisted of a group of people who, as part of a study exercise, had applied to be housed in the former ape enclosure by day, but then returned home by night.[23] The inhabitants took part in several exercises, much to the amusement of onlookers, who were asked for donations towards a new ape enclosure. In 2007, pygmy performers at the Festival of Pan-African Music were housed (although not exhibited) at a zoo in Brazzaville, Congo.

Source: wikipedia,  And
unbelievable-facts.com/2015/05/human-zoos.html